University of Technology, Sydney

Staff directory | Campus maps | Newsroom | What's on

Commonly used abbreviations and contractions

The abbreviations listed below are commonly used in bibliographies, reference lists, and notes. You may also come across some of these in your readings.

& and 
abr. abridged
anon. anonymous
app. appendix
art. article
bk. book
c. approximately, about (Latin circa); e.g. c. 1888
cf. compare (Latin confer)
ch. / c. chapter (c. for legislation)
col. column (cols for columns)
comp. compiler (comps for compliers)
div. division
ed. editor (eds for editors)
edn edition (ends for editions)
e.g. for example (Latin exempli gratia)
eq. equation (eqs for equations)
esp.

especially 

et al. and others (Latin et alii)
et seq. and following (Latin et sequentes)
etc. and so forth (Latin et cetera)
fig. figure (figs for figures)
fn. footnote (fnn for footnotes)
ibid. in the same work (Latin ibidem)
id. the same (Latin idem)
i.e. that is (Latin id est)
ill. illustrator (ills for illustrators)
inf. below (Latin infra)
 l. line (ll. for lines)
 loc. cit. in the place cited (Latin loco citato)
 ms manuscript (Latin manuscriptum); (mss for manuscripts, Latin manuscripta)
 n. note (nn. for notes)
n.d. no date
 no.  number (nos for numbers)
 n.p. no place
 op. cit. in the work cited (Latin opere citato)
p. page (pp. for pages)
par. / para. paragraph (paras for paragraphs)
 pass. here and there, throughout (Latin passim)
 pt part (pts for parts)
 q.v. which see (Latin quod vide); [qq.v. for which (plural) see, Latin quae vide]
 r. regulation (rr. for regulations)
repr. reprinted
rev. revised / reviser
sec. / ss. / S. section (s. and ss. for legislation)
 ser. series
 sup. above (Latin supra)
 supp. supplement
 trans. translator
 v. see (Latin vide)
 viz.  namely (Latin videlicet)
 vol. volume (vols for volumes)

Adapted from the following sources:
Faculty of Business 2006, Guide to writing assignments, University of Technology, Sydney.
Grambs, D 1985, Literary companion dictionary, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.